Further Reading


  • Bortz J. and Döring N. 2002. Forschungsmethoden und Evaluation. 3. Aufl. Springer, Berlin.
  • Browner C.H. et al. 1988. A Methodology for Cross-cultural Ethnomedical Research. Current Athropology 29(5): 681-699.
  • Cotton, C. M. 1996. Ethnobotany . Principles and Applications. Wiley, Chichester.
  • Cunningham A.B. 2001. Applied ethnobotany. People, wild plant use and conservation. People and plants conservation manual. Earthscan, London.
  • Dierschke H. 1994. Pflanzensoziologie. Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart.
  • Ellen R.F., Bernstein J., and Antaran B. 1997. The use of plot surveys for the study of ethnobotanical knowledge: A Brunei Dusun example. Journal of Ethnobiology 17 (1), 69-96.
  • Etkin N. 1993. Anthropological Methods in Ethnopharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 38: 93-104.
  • Frodin D.G. 2001. Guide to standard floras of the world. 2. ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Hart, K.H. and Cox P.A. 2001. A cladistic approach to comparative Ethnobotany: Dye plants of the Southwestern United States. Journal of Ethnobiology 20(2):303-325.
  • Hedberg I. 1993. Botanical Methods in Ethnopharmacology and the Need for Conservation of Medicinal Plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 38: 121-128.
  • Kent M. and Coker P. 1994. Vegetation Description and Analysis: A Practical Approach. Wiley, Chichester.
  • Martin G. J. 1995. Ethnobotany. A People and Plants conservation manual. London: Chapman & Hall.
  • Phillips O. and Gentry A.H. 1993a. The useful plants of Tambopata, Peru I. Statistical hypothesis tests with a new quantitative technique. Economic Botany 47: 15-32.
  • Phillips O. and Gentry A.H. 1993b. The useful plants of Tambopata, Peru II. Additional hypothesis testing in quantitative ethnobotany. Economic Botany 47: 33-43.
  • Tuxill J. and Nabhan G.P. 2001. People, plants and protected areas. A guide to in situ management. People and plants conservation manual. Earthscan, London.
  • Waller D.P. 1993. Methods in Ethnopharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 38: 189-195.


  • Berkes F. 1999. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management. Taylor and Francis, Philadelphia.
  • Berkes, F., and C. Folke. 2002. Back to the future: ecosystem dynamics and local knowledge. Pages 121–146 in L. H. Gunderson and C. S. Holling, editors. Panarchy: understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Island Press, Washington, D.C., USA.
  • Berlin B. et al. 1973. General Principles of Classification and Nomenclature in Folk Biology. American Anthropologist 75(1): 214-242.
  • Cox P.A. 2000. Will tribal knowledge survive the millennium? Science 287 (5450):44.
  • Ellen R. 1993. The Cultural Relations of Classification: An Analysis of Nuaulu Animal Categories from Central Seram. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ellen R.F. 2000. Indigenous environmental knowledge and its transformations (edited with P. Parkes and A. Bicker) Amsterdam: Harwood.
  • Etkin N (ed) 1994. Eating on the wild side. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
  • IUCN. 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Compiled by C. Hilton-Taylor, IUCN-The World Conservation Union/Species Survival Commission, Gland (Switzerland). Available in electronic form only at http://www.redlist.org.
  • Maffi L. (ed) 2001. On Biocultural diversity. Linking language, knowledge and the environment. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.
  • Mascia M.B., Brosius J.P., Dobson T.A., Forbes B.C., Horowitz L., McKean M.A., and Turner N.J. 2003. Conservation and the social sciences. Conservation Biology 17: 649-650.
  • Myers, N., Mittermeier R.A., Mittermeier C.G., da Fonseca G.A.B., and Kent J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853-858.
  • Olson D.M. and Dinerstein E. 2002. The global 200: Priority ecoregions for global conservation. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 89: 199-224.
  • Posey D.A. 1990. Intellectual Property Rights: What is the Position of Ethnobiology? Journal of Ethnobiology 10: 93-98.
  • Stepp, J. R., F. S. Wyndham, and R. K. Zarger (eds). 2002. Ethnobiology and Biocultural Diversity. University of Georgia Press, Georgia.
  • World Health Organization 2002. WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002-2005. Geneva.


  • Alcorn J.B. 1995. The Scope and Aims of Ethnobotany in a Developing World. In R.E. Schultes and S. von Reis (eds): Ethnobotany. Portland, Oregon: Dioscorides Press. 23-39.
  • Berlin J.B. et al. 1974. Principles of Tzeltal Plant Classification. New York: Academic Press.
  • Cox P.A. 1995. Shaman as scientist: Indigenous knowledge systems in pharmacological research and conservation biology. p 1-15. In Hostettman K., Marston A., Maillard M., and Hamburger M. (eds), Phytochemistry of plants used in traditional medicine. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Cox P.A. 2000. Endangered plants, vanishing cultures: Ethnobotany and conservation, 435-442. In Raven P.H. and Williams T. (eds), Nature and human society: The quest for a sustainable world. Proceedings of the 2nd National Forum on Biodiversity, Washington, D.C. October 1997. National Academy Press, Washington D.C.
  • Cunningham A.B. 1993. African medicinal plants: setting priorities at the interface between conservation and primary healthcare. People and plants working paper 1, March: 1-50.
  • Heinrich, M. 2001. Ethnopharmazie und Ethnobotanik. Eine Einführung. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart.
  • Howard P (ed). 2003. Women and plants. Case studies on gender relations in biodiversity management and conservation. London, UK: Zed Press.
  • Johns T. 1990. With bitter herbs they shall eat it: Chemical ecology and the origins of human diet and medicine. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
  • Kocher Schmid C. 1991. Of People and Plants. Basler Beiträge zur Ethnologie 33. Basel: Wepf.
  • Manandhar N.P. 2003. Plants and people of Nepal. Timber Press, Portland.
  • Prance G.T., Balée W., Boom B.M., and Carneiro R.L. 1995. Quantitative ethnobotany and the case for conservation in Amazonia. In Schultes R.E. and Von Reis S. (eds), Ethnobotany, evolution of a discipline. Chapman and Hall, London: 157-174.
  • Schultes R.E. and von Reis S. 1995 (eds). Ethnobotany, evolution of a discipline. Chapman and Hall, London.
  • Xiao P.G. 1991. The Chinese approach to medicinal plants – their utilization and conservation. In Akerele O., Heywood V.H. and Synge H. (eds), The conservation of medicinal plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.: 305-313.


  • Heinrich M. and Jäger A.K. (eds) 2015. Ethnopharmacology. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. 462 p. ISBN: 978-1-118-93074-8

A selection of relevant journals